Using git allows you to make backups, use code versioning, rollback code, use multiple development machines/have multiple users, auto merging code etc.
Github can be cheaper, more flexible and offer more features than something like Dropbox.
Don’t forget to set up Two Factor Authentication for extra security.
Login to GitHub (signup for a free account if need be).
Enter your Two Factor Authentication code every time you login.
If you have read any of my guides on setting up servers (e.g The quickest way to setup a scalable development IDE and web server, How to buy a new domain and SSL cert from NameCheap, a Server from Digital Ocean and configure it or Connecting to an AWS EC2 Ubuntu instance with Cloud 9 IDE as user ubuntu and root ) you will be familiar with SSH keys.
You can check your existing SSH Keys by typing the following.
ls -al ~/.ssh
Follow this GitHub guide on creating a new SSH key to use with GitHub.
I found I had to do the following in the Mac terminal to get this to work.
eval "$(ssh-agent -s)" mkdir /gitrsatemp cd /gitrsatemp sudo ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -C "[email protected]" # specify output as /gitrsatemp/githubrsa # used a passphrase from https://www.grc.com/passwords.htm mv /gitrsatemp/* ~/.ssh/ cd ~/.ssh/ ssh-add -K ./githubrsa
You can now add your SSH key to GitHub.
cd ~/.ssh/ sudo pbcopy < ./githubrsa.pub
You can then add your public key to https://github.com/settings/keys
Add the SSH Key.
You can then test the SSH connection to GitHub.
At first, I tried this but got an error.
sudo ssh -T [email protected] The authenticity of host 'github.com (184.108.40.206)' can't be established. RSA key fingerprint is SHA256:key_redacted. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes Warning: Permanently added 'github.com,220.127.116.11' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
This is what I got when I added my SSH Key to my GitHub account. This worked for me (this updated my known_hosts file).
sudo ssh -T [email protected] Hi SimonFearby! You've successfully authenticated, but GitHub does not provide shell access.
Tip: Don’t forget to save adding your SSH Key to GitHub
If you need help contact GitHub.
GitHub offers free public repository pricing or $7 a month for unlimited personal repositories for personal use. Bitbucket is the Atlassian owned alternative to GitHub, they have free repositories for up to 5 users with 1TB.
Read my Setting up BitBucket on an iMac and creating a project guide.
Read on the differences between GitHub and BitBucket.
Create your first test public Repository.
To specify a Readme file and an ignore file if need be (we can do this later). You will need to be a paid Git member to create private repositories.
When your repository is created it will be ready to upload files: https://github.com/SimonFearby/testgitproject001
Creating a local folder
Create a local folder for the repository etc.
# create a folder on your desktop cd ~/Desktop/ mkdir testgitproject001 cd testgitproject001/ # Check the git status git status fatal: Not a git repository (or any of the parent directories): .git # the folder is now ready files from the repository.
Liking the remote repository to the local folder.
First, we need to initialize git locally by typing the following.
git init > Initialized empty Git repository in /Users/simon/Desktop/testgitproject001/.git/
Now we can add the remote “origin” repository to the local repo.
git remote add origin [email protected]:SimonFearby/testgitproject001.git
We can now see connected remote repositories by typing the following
git remote -v origin [email protected]:SimonFearby/testgitproject001.git (fetch) origin [email protected]:SimonFearby/testgitproject001.git (push)
Syncing (Pulling) the Repository
Generally, you want to pull all files from the remote repository after you create it (and the readme file).
git pull origin master
This worked 🙂
# What directory are we in pwd /Users/simon/Desktop/testgitproject001 # No files ls -al total 0 drwxr-xr-x 3 simon staff 102 28 Jun 00:19 . drwx------+ 53 simon staff 1802 28 Jun 00:00 .. drwxr-xr-x 10 simon staff 340 28 Jun 00:21 .git # Let's get the repo files git pull origin master remote: Counting objects: 4, done. remote: Compressing objects: 100% (3/3), done. Unpacking objects: 100% (4/4), done. remote: Total 4 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 0 From github.com:SimonFearby/testgitproject001 * branch master -> FETCH_HEAD * [new branch] master -> origin/master # Is the readme is there. ls -al total 32 drwxr-xr-x 5 simon staff 170 28 Jun 00:30 . drwx------+ 53 simon staff 1802 28 Jun 00:00 .. drwxr-xr-x 13 simon staff 442 28 Jun 00:30 .git -rw-r--r-- 1 simon staff 11357 28 Jun 00:30 LICENSE -rw-r--r-- 1 simon staff 49 28 Jun 00:30 README.md
Pulling, Pushing, Branches and Forking.
You can read more about pulling, pushing, branches and forking here.
This course helped me https://www.udemy.com/learn-android/
Adding your first local file(s) to the repository
Adding all files to the new directory.
git add -A
Adding a single file:
git add newfilename.txt
Here is an example of adding a new file.
# Create a new file touch newfilename.txt #edit the file. sudo nano newfilename.txt # Tell git we want this file to be managed git add newfilename.txt # What is the status of this repository git status On branch master Changes to be committed: (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
Set your default commit username (help)
git config --global user.name "Mona Lisa"
Set your default commit email address (help).
git config --global user.email "[email protected]"
Double-check config here
git config --global --edit
You will need to use vim to insert then save changes. I like the nano text editor better so I am changing the default editor.
Setting your default as nano (and not vim)
nano (and not vim)
git config --global core.editor nano
Submitting (pushing) changes
# Create a new file locally touch newfilename.txt # edit the local file sudo nanonewfilename.txt # Tell git we want to include it. git addnewfilename.txt # commit the file to the remote (origin) server with a commit message git commitnewfilename.txt -m "addednewfilename.txt" # Merge all changes with the remote (origin) server git push origin master
The changes have been pushed (merged)
Adding another file.
This is how I added another single file locally and pushed to the remote (origin) server
# Create a new file locally touch anothernewfile.txt # edit the local file sudo nano anothernewfile.txt # Tell git we want to include it. git add anothernewfile.txt # commit the file to the remote (origin) server with a commit message git commit anothernewfile.txt -m "added anothernewfile.txt" # Merge all changes with the remote (origin) server git push origin master
Now we have two new public files in a repository and locally.
README.md and markdown
Now we need to make the README.MD file look nice and reflect the changes.
I made some changes (see) and pushed to the repository (origin).
# edit the file sudo nano README.md # Tell git we want to commit the changes git commit README.md -m "edited README.md" # Merge local changes with the remote repository (origin) git push origin master
My local README.md markdown changes
# testgitproject001 Simon's Test Git Project 001 # *Added* **two** test __text__ files (~~they are not important~~) - [x] newfilename.txt - [x] anothernewfilename.txt - [ ] notmergedlocalfile.txt ## This is for my (GitHub guide on my blog](https://www.fearby.com/article/setting-up-github-on-an-imac-and-creating-a-project/) Inline-style: ![Simon Fearby Avatar](https://fearby.com/Avatar.jpeg "Simon Fearby Avatar")
This is what is looks like on GitHub after I commit and push
You can use pages on GitHub with markdown to create versioned documentation and help.
Commit and check the git status frequently
It is strongly advisable to frequently commit files (to a staging/not master repository) and check local it status for any issues. Commit as frequently as you remember.
# A forgotten local edit sudo nano README.md # Show a gitstatus report git status On branch master Changes not staged for commit: (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) modified: README.md no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")
You can push or delete changes if need be.
Adding many subfolders and many files.
Let’s say you have just added three subfolders (iOS Project Code (12 files), Android Projet Code (1255 items) and a Windows Desktop Project Code (.NET) folder (27 items) and you want to add them all to the remote repository (origin).
Now we need to add the 1,294 files to the local repository.
We can simply type the following to tell git we want it to manage all the local files.
# Add all sub folders and files in tbhis folder. git add . # Show a local status report. simon$ git status On branch master Changes to be committed: (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage) new file: .DS_Store new file: Android Project Code/.gitignore new file: Android Project Code/.idea/.name new file: Android Project Code/.idea/compiler.xml new file: Android Project Code/.idea/copyright/profiles_settings.xml .. 1000+ orther files are listed
Now you can merge the files top remote repository (origin).
git push origin master
Don’t forget to updates your README.md file with changes.
fyi: GitHub may take a minute or two to show changes.
# Edt the README.md sudo nano README.md # Commit the changed file git commit README.md -m "edited README.md again" # merge chnages. push origin master
Ignoring local files
You may want to ignore local files or folders. In your git folder type. I like to ignore all files with “secret” in the filename.
AWS recommend you ignore secret keys and logs to prevent inadvertent account access via sharing secret keys.
# Edit your repositories ignore file sudo nano .git/info/exclude # Add These exclusions secret*.* *secret.* *secert*.* *.secret* *.*secret *.*secret*
You can see I have created a few secret files and new thirdnewfile.txt (and added it to git) and committed and pushed and the secret files remain local (they will remain local while they match the ignored list).
ls -al total 112 drwxr-xr-x 15 simon staff 510 28 Jun 15:31 . drwx------+ 53 simon staff 1802 28 Jun 14:53 .. -rw-r--r--@ 1 simon staff 12292 28 Jun 15:00 .DS_Store drwxr-xr-x 14 simon staff 476 28 Jun 15:34 .git drwxr-xr-x 15 simon staff 510 28 Jun 14:59 Android Project Code -rw-r--r-- 1 simon staff 11357 28 Jun 00:30 LICENSE -rw-r--r-- 1 simon staff 544 28 Jun 15:19 README.md drwxr-xr-x 6 simon staff 204 28 Jun 15:00 Windows Desktop Project Code -rw-r--r-- 1 simon staff 10 28 Jun 14:06 anothernewfile.txt drwxr-xr-x 5 simon staff 170 28 Jun 14:49 iOS Project Code -rw-r--r-- 1 simon staff 17 28 Jun 15:30 my.secret -rw-r--r-- 1 simon staff 10 28 Jun 01:10 newfilename.txt -rw-r--r-- 1 simon staff 26 28 Jun 15:23 secertapikey.txt -rw-r--r-- 1 simon staff 22 28 Jun 15:23 secretfile.txt -rw-r--r-- 1 simon staff 21 28 Jun 15:31 thirdnewfile.txt
Local Git View
GitHub Desktop Application
I checked out the GitHub Desktop application at https://desktop.github.com/.
The downloaded compressed file.
I extracted and copied the app to the Applications folder.
Now I logged into to the application.
Much respect to GitHub for integrating Two Factor Authentication into the login.
Unfortunately, GitHub Desktop thinks I have zero repositories (I have 9 repositories when I log in via the web using the same email address). I contacted support on Twitter but have not had a response yet?
I was able to clone the repository I made via the command line earlier or add a local repository.
I added a new text file (afileaddedwithgithubdesktop.txt) to the folder and GitHub Desktop noticed this new file straight away. I added this file to the repository.
I pushed all local changes to the origin/remote master repository.
All local changes were merged with the remote origin master (I could never do this with Atlassian’s SourceTree application).
Now I can sync up my projects that to GitHub repositories from the terminal and GitHub Desktop application and benefit from the features of git (backups, versioning, rollbacks, multiple machines/multiple users, auto merging etc).
Read my Setting up BitBucket on an iMac and creating a project guide.
Git repositories on Raspberry Pi’s.
Setting up a development environment on Digital Ocean 14.04
Tips and Troubleshooting
How to add all local files and commit all local files.
git add -A && git commit
I hope this is helpful to someone.
P.S Don’t edit live code, use GitHub.
Agile Project Management
Read my blog post on developing software and staying on track here.
I highly recommend you follow Dmitri Iarandine at http://joinagile.com/ (Agile Coach, Trainer, Host of Lean and Mean Agile). Podcast. Author of GET HIRED as SCRUM MASTER).
Dmitri can be found here too.
Soundcloud (Lean and Mean Agile Podcast):
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v1.7 added info on agile and staying on track,